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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Burckel, Pierre; Waelbroeck, Claire; Luo, Yiming; Roche, Didier M; +6 Authors

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during Heinrich Stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20-50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa/230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa/230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin, and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich Stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow southward flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sabine, C. L. Br; Hankin, S. Br; Koyuk, H. Br; Bakker, D. C. E. Br; +72 Authors

    As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2) product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles), but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions).

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Earth System Science...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pfeil, B. Br; Olsen, A. Br; Bakker, D. C. E. Br; Hankin, S. Br; +78 Authors

    A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Norwegian Open Resea...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H.; Ortega, P.; Swingedouw, D.; +19 Authors

    Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterise the isotope–temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic sea surface temperature and is enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multidecadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815–1825 and 1836–1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multidecadal accumulation–temperature and δ18O–temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979–2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2 % °C−1 and the δ18O–temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2 ‰ °C−1, about twice as large as previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kassem, M.; Soize, Christian; Gagliardini, L.;

    An energy-based automatic sub-structuring method is proposed. The established energy formulation is applicable in the low- and medium-frequency ranges when using a stochastic vibroacoustic model. The idea evolved from recent work which aimed to take into account system parameters and model uncertainties in vibroacoustic modeling by applying a probabilistic approach of uncertainties. Numerical and experimental results showed statistical properties of the frequency response functions in low- and medium-frequency ranges in a stochastic context. Thus, although inspired from the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method, the used energy formulation is a quite different method and it has the advantage of being applicable in low-frequency ranges where the SEA and its derivations fail to apply. The stochastic model is constructed using the non-parametric probabilistic approach. A simplified model is constructed based on the proposed energy formulation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL UPECarrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guo, Yifu;

    L'analyse vibro-acoustique en moyennes et hautes fréquences est toujours très délicate, et il existe peu de méthodes qui soient efficaces pour des domaines fréquentiels d'analyse. La situation est encore plus délicate en présence de couplage dissipatif entre les différents éléments de la structure étudiée. Des avancées récentes ont été publiées dans la littérature afin de proposer des extensions de la méthode SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis), laquelle a été développée spécifiquement pour l'analyse vibratoire dans le domaine des hautes fréquences, au domaine des moyennes fréquences. Cependant, il nous semble, qu'aucune méthode dérivant de la SEA n'autorise à ce jour des couplages non-conservatifs. La prise en compte des couplages non-conservatifs est importante car la dissipation et l'amortissement dans les systèmes dynamiques tiennent un rôle important, tant dans les applications en ingénierie des structures que dans la modélisation des systèmes physiques. Les stratégies présentées dans la littérature consistent à regrouper ensemble en une seul système plusieurs sous-systèmes dissipant de l'énergie au travers des couplages dissipatifs. Cette approche permet de prendre en compte l'amortissement en tant que dissipation interne d'un "macro" sous-système, ce qui est possible dans le cadre usuelle de la SEA.Dans ce travail de thèse, nous présenterons un bref rappel de la méthode SEA appliquées aux oscillateurs avec couplages conservatifs, puis nous étendrons son cadre théorique au cas des couplages non-conservatifs. Cette extension sera faite en introduisant un nouveau coefficient, lequel sera désigné par la terminologie "Equivalent Coupling Power Proportionality" (ECPP), qui permet la formulation d'une méthode de type SEA pour des systèmes d'oscillateurs à N>2 degrés de liberté avec couplages non-conservatifs. Des applications numériques seront présentées pour analyser les performances de l'approche proposée. Par ailleurs, un soin tout particulier sera apporté à la construction des modèles réduits généralisés pour la vibro-acoustique. Notamment, un modèle réduit, construit par l'analyse modale, sera présenté et désigné par "Condensed Reduced-Order Model" (CROM). Ce CROM est donc issu d'une analyse modale en partitionnant la bande fréquentielle d'étude (LF, MF et HF) en bande fréquentielle plus petite, en sélectionnant les modes de vibration vibro-acoustique, dits "résonnants", qui contribuent le plus a priori à la représentation modale de la solution. Des compléments de Schur successifs sont effectués sur les inconnues généralisées des autres modes "non-résonants" pour réduire la dimension du modèle numérique. Un "Equivalent Second-Order Model" (ESOM) était construit pour identifier les différentes couplages dans la méthode SEA. Dans notre cas d'étude, il identifie non-seulement les couplages conservatifs mais aussi les couplages non-conservatifs qui viennent de la condensation du CROM, qui seront mis dans les coefficients ECPP sur lequel sera formulée l'extension ECPP de la méthode SEA et que nous appelerons "approche SEA-ECPP".Les différentes sources d'incertitudes sur les paramètres et sur la modélisation des opérateurs du ESOM dues aux approximations introduites par l'approche ECPP par rapport au ESOM seront prises en compte par une approche probabiliste non paramétrique des incertitudes. L'analyse en robustesse sera menée et présentée dans un chapitre qui lui sera dédié en fin de manuscrit Ibro-acoustic analysis in medium and high frequency range is always very delicate, and there are few methods that work efficiently in a broad frequency band of analysis. It is even more delicate if dissipative couplings appear between the different elements in the structure under analysis. Some recent works have proposed some extensions of the SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) method, which is a method designed for vibration analysis in high frequency domain. These extensions make it possible to make use of SEA in the medium frequency domain. However, it seems that none of these extensions or alternatives of SEA allow the existence of non-conservative couplings. If such a restriction can be lifted, the applications of SEA method can be much easier in the engineering problems as dissipation is really important for a dynamical system. The current strategy consists in gathering together all the subsystems that are connected by dissipative couplings.In this manuscript, a brief introduction of SEA for a coupled-oscillators system is presented with an extension to non-conservative couplings. New SEA coefficients, referred as 'Equivalent Coupling Power Proportionality' (ECPP) coefficients are introduced, which allow non-conservative couplings for N>2 coupled-oscillators system. This formulation of the SEA with ECPP coefficients will be referred as SEA-ECPP approach. Numerical applications are presented in order to validate the proposed approach. Moreover, another outcome brought during this work concerns the construction of an ad hoc reduced model for vibro-acoustic systems that will be referred as 'Condensed Reduced-Order Model' (CROM) in the rest of the manuscript. CROM is based on a modal analysis in limited frequency band. A selection of modes and a re-construction including truncation and Schur complements of the global frequency response function is carried out in order to minimize the dimension of the computational model. Based on CROM, an 'Equivalent Second-Order Model' (ESOM) is established to identify the equivalent mechanical couplings form CROM for a SEA calculation. With the conservative and non-conservative couplings identified by ESOM, the new 'Equivalent Coupling Power Proportionality' (ECPP) coefficients are proposed to solve energy relations in a system that contains non-conservative couplings, which is not allowed in classic SEA. This new approach is hereinafter named as SEA-ECPP approach.Uncertainties related to the construction of ESOM are propagated into the SEA-ECPP approach and a probabilistic model is constructed in using the non-parametric approach. The robust analysis of the SEA-ECPP based on ESOM is carried out with respect to the modelling uncertainties in using such a non-parametric probabilistic computational model

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    Authors: Burckel Pierre; Waelbroeck Claire; Luo Yiming; Roche Didier M; +6 Authors

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Heinrich stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20–50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present-day North Atlantic deep water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow, southward-flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

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    Authors: Brander, Keith M.; Ottersen, Geir; Bakker, Jan P.; Beaugrand, Gregory; +7 Authors
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    Authors: Gasperi, Johnny; Tramoy, Romain; Dris, Rachid; Blot, Denis; +1 Authors

    Les rivières sont censées être les principales voies de transfert des plastiques des terres vers l'océan (Lebreton et al., 2017 ; Schmidt et al., 2017). Cependant, il existe encore un manque important de connaissances sur la façon dont les déchets fluviaux, y compris les macroplastiques, sont transférés vers l'Océan. Les mesures quantitatives des émissions de macroplastiques dans les rivières suggèrent même qu'une fraction de l'ordre de 0,001 à 3% des déchets plastiques mal gérés (MPW) générés dans un bassin fluvial atteignent finalement la mer (Emmerik et al., 2019 ; Schöneich-Argent et al., 2020 ; Tramoy et al. 2021). Au lieu de cela, les macroplastiques peuvent rester dans le bassin versant et sur les côtes en raison de la dynamique complexe du transport qui retarde le transfert des déchets mal gérés des terres vers l'océan (Olivelli et al., 2020 ; Weideman et al., 2020). Afin de mieux comprendre ces dynamiques, le laboratoire Eau et Environnement et le Laboratoire Eau Environnement et Systèmes Urbains étudient la dynamique des déchets en Seine et en Loire. Pour les macrodéchets plastiques, l'ensemble des travaux engagés sur la Seine permettent de dresser une première esquisse des flux de déchets plastiques transitant en Seine, captés par les dispositifs urbains et/ou collectés par des opérations de nettoyage. Selon nos estimations, entre 100 et 200 tonnes de déchets plastiques transiteraient chaque année en Seine. A l'échelle de l'agglomération parisienne, et bien que ces valeurs s'accompagnent de fortes incertitudes, les eaux pluviales n'apporteraient qu'une part mineure de ces flux, i.e., entre 8 et 33 tonnes par an. L'étude de la dynamique des débris plastiques montre que le transfert des plastiques est loin d'être linéaire et qu'il est soumis à de nombreux phénomènes physiques à de nombreuses échelles temporelles, i.e. d'échelles courtes allant de quelques heures à quelques jours (marées hautes / basses) à des échelles beaucoup plus longues allant de plusieurs semaines (marées de printemps / creuses et marées les plus hautes) à quelques années (crues). La conséquence de ces interactions est que le transfert des débris est chaotique et qu'une part importante de ces flux peut venir s'échouer sur les berges.

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9 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Burckel, Pierre; Waelbroeck, Claire; Luo, Yiming; Roche, Didier M; +6 Authors

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during Heinrich Stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20-50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa/230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa/230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin, and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich Stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow southward flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sabine, C. L. Br; Hankin, S. Br; Koyuk, H. Br; Bakker, D. C. E. Br; +72 Authors

    As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2) product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles), but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Earth System Science...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Earth System Science...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pfeil, B. Br; Olsen, A. Br; Bakker, D. C. E. Br; Hankin, S. Br; +78 Authors

    A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Norwegian Open Resea...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Norwegian Open Resea...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H.; Ortega, P.; Swingedouw, D.; +19 Authors

    Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterise the isotope–temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic sea surface temperature and is enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multidecadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815–1825 and 1836–1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multidecadal accumulation–temperature and δ18O–temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979–2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2 % °C−1 and the δ18O–temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2 ‰ °C−1, about twice as large as previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Cryosphere (TC)arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kassem, M.; Soize, Christian; Gagliardini, L.;

    An energy-based automatic sub-structuring method is proposed. The established energy formulation is applicable in the low- and medium-frequency ranges when using a stochastic vibroacoustic model. The idea evolved from recent work which aimed to take into account system parameters and model uncertainties in vibroacoustic modeling by applying a probabilistic approach of uncertainties. Numerical and experimental results showed statistical properties of the frequency response functions in low- and medium-frequency ranges in a stochastic context. Thus, although inspired from the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method, the used energy formulation is a quite different method and it has the advantage of being applicable in low-frequency ranges where the SEA and its derivations fail to apply. The stochastic model is constructed using the non-parametric probabilistic approach. A simplified model is constructed based on the proposed energy formulation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL UPECarrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guo, Yifu;

    L'analyse vibro-acoustique en moyennes et hautes fréquences est toujours très délicate, et il existe peu de méthodes qui soient efficaces pour des domaines fréquentiels d'analyse. La situation est encore plus délicate en présence de couplage dissipatif entre les différents éléments de la structure étudiée. Des avancées récentes ont été publiées dans la littérature afin de proposer des extensions de la méthode SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis), laquelle a été développée spécifiquement pour l'analyse vibratoire dans le domaine des hautes fréquences, au domaine des moyennes fréquences. Cependant, il nous semble, qu'aucune méthode dérivant de la SEA n'autorise à ce jour des couplages non-conservatifs. La prise en compte des couplages non-conservatifs est importante car la dissipation et l'amortissement dans les systèmes dynamiques tiennent un rôle important, tant dans les applications en ingénierie des structures que dans la modélisation des systèmes physiques. Les stratégies présentées dans la littérature consistent à regrouper ensemble en une seul système plusieurs sous-systèmes dissipant de l'énergie au travers des couplages dissipatifs. Cette approche permet de prendre en compte l'amortissement en tant que dissipation interne d'un "macro" sous-système, ce qui est possible dans le cadre usuelle de la SEA.Dans ce travail de thèse, nous présenterons un bref rappel de la méthode SEA appliquées aux oscillateurs avec couplages conservatifs, puis nous étendrons son cadre théorique au cas des couplages non-conservatifs. Cette extension sera faite en introduisant un nouveau coefficient, lequel sera désigné par la terminologie "Equivalent Coupling Power Proportionality" (ECPP), qui permet la formulation d'une méthode de type SEA pour des systèmes d'oscillateurs à N>2 degrés de liberté avec couplages non-conservatifs. Des applications numériques seront présentées pour analyser les performances de l'approche proposée. Par ailleurs, un soin tout particulier sera apporté à la construction des modèles réduits généralisés pour la vibro-acoustique. Notamment, un modèle réduit, construit par l'analyse modale, sera présenté et désigné par "Condensed Reduced-Order Model" (CROM). Ce CROM est donc issu d'une analyse modale en partitionnant la bande fréquentielle d'étude (LF, MF et HF) en bande fréquentielle plus petite, en sélectionnant les modes de vibration vibro-acoustique, dits "résonnants", qui contribuent le plus a priori à la représentation modale de la solution. Des compléments de Schur successifs sont effectués sur les inconnues généralisées des autres modes "non-résonants" pour réduire la dimension du modèle numérique. Un "Equivalent Second-Order Model" (ESOM) était construit pour identifier les différentes couplages dans la méthode SEA. Dans notre cas d'étude, il identifie non-seulement les couplages conservatifs mais aussi les couplages non-conservatifs qui viennent de la condensation du CROM, qui seront mis dans les coefficients ECPP sur lequel sera formulée l'extension ECPP de la méthode SEA et que nous appelerons "approche SEA-ECPP".Les différentes sources d'incertitudes sur les paramètres et sur la modélisation des opérateurs du ESOM dues aux approximations introduites par l'approche ECPP par rapport au ESOM seront prises en compte par une approche probabiliste non paramétrique des incertitudes. L'analyse en robustesse sera menée et présentée dans un chapitre qui lui sera dédié en fin de manuscrit Ibro-acoustic analysis in medium and high frequency range is always very delicate, and there are few methods that work efficiently in a broad frequency band of analysis. It is even more delicate if dissipative couplings appear between the different elements in the structure under analysis. Some recent works have proposed some extensions of the SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) method, which is a method designed for vibration analysis in high frequency domain. These extensions make it possible to make use of SEA in the medium frequency domain. However, it seems that none of these extensions or alternatives of SEA allow the existence of non-conservative couplings. If such a restriction can be lifted, the applications of SEA method can be much easier in the engineering problems as dissipation is really important for a dynamical system. The current strategy consists in gathering together all the subsystems that are connected by dissipative couplings.In this manuscript, a brief introduction of SEA for a coupled-oscillators system is presented with an extension to non-conservative couplings. New SEA coefficients, referred as 'Equivalent Coupling Power Proportionality' (ECPP) coefficients are introduced, which allow non-conservative couplings for N>2 coupled-oscillators system. This formulation of the SEA with ECPP coefficients will be referred as SEA-ECPP approach. Numerical applications are presented in order to validate the proposed approach. Moreover, another outcome brought during this work concerns the construction of an ad hoc reduced model for vibro-acoustic systems that will be referred as 'Condensed Reduced-Order Model' (CROM) in the rest of the manuscript. CROM is based on a modal analysis in limited frequency band. A selection of modes and a re-construction including truncation and Schur complements of the global frequency response function is carried out in order to minimize the dimension of the computational model. Based on CROM, an 'Equivalent Second-Order Model' (ESOM) is established to identify the equivalent mechanical couplings form CROM for a SEA calculation. With the conservative and non-conservative couplings identified by ESOM, the new 'Equivalent Coupling Power Proportionality' (ECPP) coefficients are proposed to solve energy relations in a system that contains non-conservative couplings, which is not allowed in classic SEA. This new approach is hereinafter named as SEA-ECPP approach.Uncertainties related to the construction of ESOM are propagated into the SEA-ECPP approach and a probabilistic model is constructed in using the non-parametric approach. The robust analysis of the SEA-ECPP based on ESOM is carried out with respect to the modelling uncertainties in using such a non-parametric probabilistic computational model

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    Authors: Burckel Pierre; Waelbroeck Claire; Luo Yiming; Roche Didier M; +6 Authors

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Heinrich stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20–50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present-day North Atlantic deep water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow, southward-flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

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    Authors: Brander, Keith M.; Ottersen, Geir; Bakker, Jan P.; Beaugrand, Gregory; +7 Authors
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    Authors: Gasperi, Johnny; Tramoy, Romain; Dris, Rachid; Blot, Denis; +1 Authors

    Les rivières sont censées être les principales voies de transfert des plastiques des terres vers l'océan (Lebreton et al., 2017 ; Schmidt et al., 2017). Cependant, il existe encore un manque important de connaissances sur la façon dont les déchets fluviaux, y compris les macroplastiques, sont transférés vers l'Océan. Les mesures quantitatives des émissions de macroplastiques dans les rivières suggèrent même qu'une fraction de l'ordre de 0,001 à 3% des déchets plastiques mal gérés (MPW) générés dans un bassin fluvial atteignent finalement la mer (Emmerik et al., 2019 ; Schöneich-Argent et al., 2020 ; Tramoy et al. 2021). Au lieu de cela, les macroplastiques peuvent rester dans le bassin versant et sur les côtes en raison de la dynamique complexe du transport qui retarde le transfert des déchets mal gérés des terres vers l'océan (Olivelli et al., 2020 ; Weideman et al., 2020). Afin de mieux comprendre ces dynamiques, le laboratoire Eau et Environnement et le Laboratoire Eau Environnement et Systèmes Urbains étudient la dynamique des déchets en Seine et en Loire. Pour les macrodéchets plastiques, l'ensemble des travaux engagés sur la Seine permettent de dresser une première esquisse des flux de déchets plastiques transitant en Seine, captés par les dispositifs urbains et/ou collectés par des opérations de nettoyage. Selon nos estimations, entre 100 et 200 tonnes de déchets plastiques transiteraient chaque année en Seine. A l'échelle de l'agglomération parisienne, et bien que ces valeurs s'accompagnent de fortes incertitudes, les eaux pluviales n'apporteraient qu'une part mineure de ces flux, i.e., entre 8 et 33 tonnes par an. L'étude de la dynamique des débris plastiques montre que le transfert des plastiques est loin d'être linéaire et qu'il est soumis à de nombreux phénomènes physiques à de nombreuses échelles temporelles, i.e. d'échelles courtes allant de quelques heures à quelques jours (marées hautes / basses) à des échelles beaucoup plus longues allant de plusieurs semaines (marées de printemps / creuses et marées les plus hautes) à quelques années (crues). La conséquence de ces interactions est que le transfert des débris est chaotique et qu'une part importante de ces flux peut venir s'échouer sur les berges.

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