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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ruud H. H. Janssen; Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Andrea Pozzer; +7 Authors

    AbstractWe performed a case study of the organic aerosol (OA) budget during the MEGAPOLI campaign during summer 2009 in Paris. We combined aerosol mass spectrometer, gas phase chemistry, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) data and applied the MXL/MESSy column model. We find that during daytime, vertical mixing due to ABL growth has opposing effects on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary organic aerosol (POA) concentrations. POA concentrations are mainly governed by dilution due to boundary layer expansion and transport of POA‐depleted air from aloft, while SOA concentrations are enhanced by entrainment of SOA‐rich air from the residual layer (RL). Further, local emissions and photochemical production control the diurnal cycle of SOA. SOA from intermediate volatility organic compounds constitutes about half of the locally formed SOA mass. Other processes that previously have been shown to influence the urban OA budget, such as aging of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOC), dry deposition of S/IVOCs, and IVOC emissions, are found to have minor influences on OA. Our model results show that the modern carbon content of the OA is driven by vertical and long‐range transport, with a minor contribution from local cooking emissions. SOA from regional sources and resulting from aging and long‐lived precursors can lead to high SOA concentrations above the ABL, which can strongly influence ground‐based observations through downward transport. Sensitivity analysis shows that modeled SOA concentrations in the ABL are equally sensitive to ABL dynamics as to SOA concentrations transported from the RL.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx; I. R. van der Velde; Maarten Krol; Luciana V. Gatti; +10 Authors

    AbstractTwo major droughts in the past decade had large impacts on carbon exchange in the Amazon. Recent analysis of vertical profile measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CO by Gatti et al. (2014) suggests that the 2010 drought turned the normally close‐to‐neutral annual Amazon carbon balance into a substantial source of nearly 0.5 PgC/yr, revealing a strong drought response. In this study, we revisit this hypothesis and interpret not only the same CO2/CO vertical profile measurements but also additional constraints on carbon exchange such as satellite observations of CO, burned area, and fire hot spots. The results from our CarbonTracker South America data assimilation system suggest that carbon uptake by vegetation was indeed reduced in 2010 but that the magnitude of the decrease strongly depends on the estimated 2010 and 2011 biomass burning emissions. We have used fire products based on burned area (Global Fire Emissions Database version 4), satellite‐observed CO columns (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), fire radiative power (Global Fire Assimilation System version 1), and fire hot spots (Fire Inventory from NCAR version 1), and found an increase in biomass burning emissions in 2010 compared to 2011 of 0.16 to 0.24 PgC/yr. We derived a decrease of biospheric uptake ranging from 0.08 to 0.26 PgC/yr, with the range determined from a set of alternative inversions using different biomass burning estimates. Our numerical analysis of the 2010 Amazon drought results in a total reduction of carbon uptake of 0.24 to 0.50 PgC/yr and turns the balance from carbon sink to source. Our findings support the suggestion that the hydrological cycle will be an important driver of future changes in Amazonian carbon exchange.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research@WUR; Global Biogeochemical Cycles
    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Other literature type . Article . 2015
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    Hal-Diderot
    Conference object . 2015
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research@WUR; Global Biogeochemical Cycles
      Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Other literature type . Article . 2015
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      Hal-Diderot
      Conference object . 2015
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ivano Baronchelli; G. Rodighiero; Harry I. Teplitz; Claudia Scarlata; +21 Authors

    For a sample of star forming galaxies in the redshift interval 0.15$<$z$<$0.3, we study how both the relative strength of the AGN infra-red emission, compared to that due to the star formation (SF), and the numerical fraction of AGNs, change as a function of the total stellar mass of the hosting galaxy group (M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$), between $10^{10.25}$ and $10^{11.9}$M$_{\odot}$. Using a multi-component SED fitting analysis, we separate the contribution of stars, AGN torus and star formation to the total emission at different wavelengths. This technique is applied to a new multi-wavelength data-set in the SIMES field (23 not redundant photometric bands), spanning the wavelength range from the UV (GALEX) to the far-IR (Herschel) and including crucial AKARI and WISE mid-IR observations (4.5 \mu m$<\lambda<$24 \mu m), where the BH thermal emission is stronger. This new photometric catalog, that includes our best photo-z estimates, is released through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Groups are identified through a friends of friends algorithm ($\sim$62% purity, $\sim$51% completeness). We identified a total of 45 galaxies requiring an AGN emission component, 35 of which in groups and 10 in the field. We find BHAR$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.21\pm0.27}$ and (BHAR/SFR)$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.04\pm0.24}$ while, in the same range of M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$, we do not observe any sensible change in the numerical fraction of AGNs. Our results indicate that the nuclear activity (i.e. the BHAR and the BHAR/SFR ratio) is enhanced when galaxies are located in more massive and richer groups. Comment: 31 pages, 23 figures

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Caltech Authorsarrow_drop_down
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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Caltech Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    The Astrophysical Journal
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IOP Copyright Policies
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2018
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Caltech Authorsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Caltech Authors
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Caltech Authors
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      The Astrophysical Journal
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: IOP Copyright Policies
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2018
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Abstract. We investigated the impact of drought on interannual variability of NPP from 1997 to 2009 using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) drought index and satellite-derived vegetation greenness converted net primary productivity (NPP). We found that SPEI and NPP were coupled and in phase on a global scale. We then used the Köppen climate classification to study the SPEI-NPP relations regionally and found that while NPP and SPEI were positively related in arid and in seasonal dry regions, the opposite occurs in most boreal regions. However, high intensity drought events, such as the 2003 drought in Europe, will lead to a reduction of NPP despite NPP being usually limited by temperature and radiation here. Our findings suggest that the strong positive relation between global average moisture availability and NPP is a composite of the positive relation across dry regions and the coherent NPP decline during and after intensive drought event in humid regions. The spatial patterns of drought impact on NPP could thus be categorized by climate classification, which implies that the predication of climate zone evaluation will contribute to the quantification of the future terrestrial carbon cycle.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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    Authors: Dahm, Veronica; Melcher, Andreas; Leitner, Patrick; Schmidt-Kloiber, Astrid; +4 Authors

    The majority of studies comparing the response of biotic metrics to environmental stress in rivers are based on relatively small, homogeneous datasets resulting from research projects. Here, we used a large dataset from Austrian and German national river monitoring programmes (2,302 sites) to analyse the response of fish, diatom and macroinvertebrate metrics to four stressors acting at different scales (hydromorphology, physico-chemistry, riparian and catchment land use). Nutrient enrichment and catchment land use were the main discriminating stressors for all organism groups, over-ruling the effects of hydromorphological stress on the site scale. The response of fish metrics to stress was generally low, while macroinvertebrate metrics performed best. The Trophic Diatom Index (TDI) responded most strongly to all stressors in the mountain streams, while different metrics were responsive in the lowlands. Our results suggest that many rivers are still considerably affected by nutrient enrichment (eutrophication), which might directly point at implications of catchment land use. We conclude that monitoring datasets are well-suited to detect major broad-scale trends of degradation and their impact on riverine assemblages, while the more subtle effects of local-scale stressors require stream type-specific approaches.

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    Hydrobiologia
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hydrobiologia
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Leone Mattia Federico; Zuccaro Giulio;

    The topic of the high seismic vulnerability of housing stock in Italy is back again at the center of political, economic, social and scientific-technical debate following the seismic crisis that struck Marche, Umbria and Lazio regions in 2016. These events have once again raised the need for a massive retrofitting program at National and Regional level, addressing the majority of the existing building stock, realized for 60% prior to the adoption of the first seismic code (Law 64/74), in a territory characterized north to south by high levels of seismic hazard. In recent years, different kinds of tools have been implemented to allow the simulation of natural hazards’ impacts on the built environment and to support strategic choices both in the field of emergency management and resilience-based urban design and planning. Nevertheless, an integrated set of instruments for a quantitatively informed decision support is still missing. Within EU-FP7 CRISMA project, an integrated DSS (Decision Support System) application has been developed, with a set of tools and functionalities addressing the main aspects involved in the decision-making processes for natural hazards preparedness and response. UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design, RED

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    https://doi.org/10.6092/2531-9...
    Article . 2016
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      https://doi.org/10.6092/2531-9...
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Günter Blöschl; Julia Hall; Juraj Parajka; Rui A. P. Perdigão; +42 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]ARCEAU; International audience; A warming climate is expected to have an impact on the magnitude and timing of river floods; however, no consistent large-scale climate change signal in observed flood magnitudes has been identified so far. We analyzed the timing of river floods in Europe over the past five decades, using a pan-European database from 4262 observational hydrometric stations, and found clear patterns of change in flood timing. Warmer temperatures have led to earlier spring snowmelt floods throughout northeastern Europe; delayed winter storms associated with polar warming have led to later winter floods around the North Sea and some sectors of the Mediterranean coast; and earlier soil moisture maxima have led to earlier winter floods in western Europe. Our results highlight the existence of a clear climate signal in flood observations at the continental scale.

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Science
    Article . 2017
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      NERC Open Research Archive
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Science
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Chemseddine Ananna; Francesco Barile; Axel Boeltzig; Carlo Giulio Bruno; +10 Authors

    Nuclear reaction cross sections are essential ingredients to predict the evolution of AGB stars and understand their impact on the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. Unfortunately, the cross sections of the reactions involved are often very small and challenging to measure in laboratories on Earth. In this context, major steps forward were made with the advent of underground nuclear astrophysics, pioneered by the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA). The present paper reviews the contribution of LUNA to our understanding of the evolution of AGB stars and related nucleosynthesis.

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: de Jong, Rogier; Verbesselt, Jan; Zeileis, Achim; Schaepman, Michael E;

    Vegetation belongs to the components of the Earth surface, which are most extensively studied using historic and present satellite records. Recently, these records exceeded a 30-year time span composed of preprocessed fortnightly observations (1981–2011). The existence of monotonic changes and trend shifts present in such records has previously been demonstrated. However, information on timing and type of such trend shifts was lacking at global scale. In this work, we detected major shifts in vegetation activity trends and their associated type (either interruptions or reversals) and timing. It appeared that the biospheric trend shifts have, over time, increased in frequency, confirming recent findings of increased turnover rates in vegetated areas. Signs of greening-to-browning reversals around the millennium transition were found in many regions (Patagonia, the Sahel, northern Kazakhstan, among others), as well as negative interruptions—“setbacks”—in greening trends (southern Africa, India, Asia Minor, among others). A minority (26%) of all significant trends appeared monotonic.

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    Authors: Eimear M. Dunne; Hamish Gordon; Andreas Kürten; Joao Almeida; +55 Authors

    New particle formation in the atmosphere produces around half of the cloud condensation nuclei that seed cloud droplets. Such particles have a pivotal role in determining the properties of clouds and the global radiation balance. Dunne et al. used the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN to construct a model of aerosol formation based on laboratory measured nucleation rates. They found that nearly all nucleation involves either ammonia or biogenic organic compounds. Furthermore in the present day atmosphere cosmic ray intensity cannot meaningfully affect climate via nucleation.Science this issue p. 1119Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast gas phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. We built a global model of aerosol formation by using extensive laboratory measurements of rates of nucleation involving sulfuric acid ammonia ions and organic compounds conducted in the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds in addition to sulfuric acid. A considerable fraction of nucleation involves ions but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied variations in cosmic ray intensity do not appreciably affect climate through nucleation in the present day atmosphere.U http://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/354/6316/1119.full.pdf

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