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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eimear M. Dunne; Hamish Gordon; Andreas Kürten; Joao Almeida; +55 Authors

    New particle formation in the atmosphere produces around half of the cloud condensation nuclei that seed cloud droplets. Such particles have a pivotal role in determining the properties of clouds and the global radiation balance. Dunne et al. used the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN to construct a model of aerosol formation based on laboratory measured nucleation rates. They found that nearly all nucleation involves either ammonia or biogenic organic compounds. Furthermore in the present day atmosphere cosmic ray intensity cannot meaningfully affect climate via nucleation.Science this issue p. 1119Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast gas phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. We built a global model of aerosol formation by using extensive laboratory measurements of rates of nucleation involving sulfuric acid ammonia ions and organic compounds conducted in the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds in addition to sulfuric acid. A considerable fraction of nucleation involves ions but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied variations in cosmic ray intensity do not appreciably affect climate through nucleation in the present day atmosphere.U http://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/354/6316/1119.full.pdf

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    https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc...
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    Authors: Wolfgang Kausch; Stefan Kimeswenger; Stefan Noll; Amy Jones;

    Abstract. Rotational temperatures Trot derived from lines of the same OH band are an important method to study the dynamics and long-term trends in the mesopause region near 87 km. To measure realistic temperatures, the rotational level populations have to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). However, this might not be fulfilled, especially at high emission altitudes. In order to quantify possible non-LTE contributions to the OH Trot as a function of the upper vibrational level v′, we studied a sample of 343 echelle spectra taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data allowed us to analyse 25 OH bands in each spectrum. Moreover, we could measure lines of O2b(0-1), which peaks at about 94 to 95 km, and O2a(0-0) with an emission peak at about 90 km. The latter altitude is reached in the second half of the night after a rise of several km because of the decay of a daytime population of excited O2. Since the radiative lifetimes for the upper levels of the two O2 bands are relatively long, the derived Trot are not significantly affected by non-LTE contributions. These bands are well suited for a comparison with OH if the differences in the emission profiles are corrected. For different sample averages, we made these corrections by using OH emission, O2a(0-0) emission, and CO2-based temperature profile data from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. The procedure relies on differences of profile-weighted SABER temperatures. For an O2a(0-0)-based reference profile at 90 km, we found a good agreement of the O2 with the SABER-related temperatures, whereas the OH temperatures, especially for the high and even v′, showed significant excesses with a maximum of more than 10 K for v′ = 8. The exact value depends on the selected lines and molecular parameters. We could also find a nocturnal trend towards higher non-LTE effects, particularly for high v′. The amplitude of these variations can be about 2 K or less, which tends to be significantly smaller than the total amount of the non-LTE contributions. The variations revealed may be important for dynamical studies based on Trot derived from OH bands with high v′.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP); OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Amann-Winkel, K.; Gainaru, C.; Handle, P. H.; Seidl, M.; +3 Authors

    The glassy states of water are of common interest as the majority of H2O in space is in the glassy state and especially because a proper description of this phenomenon is considered to be the key to our understanding why liquid water shows exceptional properties, different from all other liquids. The occurrence of water's calorimetric glass transition of low-density amorphous ice at 136 K has been discussed controversially for many years because its calorimetric signature is very feeble. Here, we report that high-density amorphous ice at ambient pressure shows a distinct calorimetric glass transitions at 116 K and present evidence that this second glass transition involves liquid-like translational mobility of water molecules. This "double Tg scenario" is related to the coexistence of two liquid phases. The calorimetric signature of the second glass transition is much less feeble, with a heat capacity increase at Tg,2 about five times as large as at Tg,1. By using broadband-dielectric spectroscopy we resolve loss peaks yielding relaxation times near 100 s at 126 K for low-density amorphous ice and at 110 K for high-density amorphous ice as signatures of these two distinct glass transitions. Temperature-dependent dielectric data and heating-rate-dependent calorimetric data allow us to construct the relaxation map for the two distinct phases of water and to extract fragility indices m = 14 for the low-density and m = 20-25 for the high-density liquid. Thus, low-density liquid is classified as the strongest of all liquids known ("superstrong"), and also high-density liquid is classified as a strong liquid.

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    Authors: Brett B. Palm; Pedro Campuzano-Jost; Douglas A. Day; Amber M. Ortega; +12 Authors

    Abstract. Ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH, O3, or NO3 radicals using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) during the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic aerosol (OA) aging. A wide range of equivalent atmospheric photochemical ages was sampled, from hours up to days (for O3 and NO3) or weeks (for OH). Ambient air processed by the OFR was typically sampled every 20–30 min, in order to determine how the availability of SOA precursor gases in ambient air changed with diurnal and synoptic conditions, for each of the three oxidants. More SOA was formed during nighttime than daytime for all three oxidants, indicating that SOA precursor concentrations were higher at night. At all times of day, OH oxidation led to approximately 4 times more SOA formation than either O3 or NO3 oxidation. This is likely because O3 and NO3 will only react with gases containing C = C bonds (e.g., terpenes) to form SOA but will not react appreciably with many of their oxidation products or any species in the gas phase that lacks a C = C bond (e.g., pinonic acid, alkanes). In contrast, OH can continue to react with compounds that lack C = C bonds to produce SOA. Closure was achieved between the amount of SOA formed from O3 and NO3 oxidation in the OFR and the SOA predicted to form from measured concentrations of ambient monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes using published chamber yields. This is in contrast to previous work at this site (Palm et al., 2016), which has shown that a source of SOA from semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) 3.4 times larger than the source from measured VOCs is needed to explain the measured SOA formation from OH oxidation. This work suggests that those S/IVOCs typically do not contain C = C bonds. O3 and NO3 oxidation produced SOA with elemental O : C and H : C similar to the least-oxidized OA observed in local ambient air, and neither oxidant led to net mass loss at the highest exposures, in contrast to OH oxidation. An OH exposure in the OFR equivalent to several hours of atmospheric aging also produced SOA with O : C and H : C values similar to ambient OA, while higher aging (days–weeks) led to formation of SOA with progressively higher O : C and lower H : C (and net mass loss at the highest exposures). NO3 oxidation led to the production of particulate organic nitrates (pRONO2), while OH and O3 oxidation (under low NO) did not, as expected. These measurements of SOA formation provide the first direct comparison of SOA formation potential and chemical evolution from OH, O3, and NO3 oxidation in the real atmosphere and help to clarify the oxidation processes that lead to SOA formation from biogenic hydrocarbons.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Oettl, Silvia; Huber, Stefan E.; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Probst, Michael;

    PAHs are known to be one of the carriers of the ubiquitous aromatic IR bands. The IR spectra of many objects show IR emission features derived from PAH molecules of different size. Still some of the characteristics of the emitting population remain unclear. The emission bands show details which cannot be explained so far. These unidentified IR features require further laboratory and observational investigations. We present a theoretical study of the IR spectra of PAHs containing (5,7)-member ring defects, focusing on pyrene and coronene. Using density functional theory, we investigate the effects of such defects on the IR spectra of pyrene and coronene and their cations and anions. In addition, we explore parts of the potential energy surface of the neutral species and discuss alternative formation pathways. The addition of (5,7)-membered ring defects in pyrene and coronene results in a change of the IR spectra, both molecules lose their typical spectroscopic signature. We find shifts in the positions of the band as well as different intensities and a rise in the number of features. The boundaries in terms of the size of the PAHs exhibiting a (5,7)-membered ring defect are studied and shown. Investigation of the minimal energy pathway leads to a result of 8.21 eV for pyrene and 8.41 eV for coronene as minimum activation barriers for the transformation from ground state to defected state. Whereas pyrene retains some of its symmetry due to the symmetry exhibited by the Stone-Wales defect itself, coronene loses much more of its symmetry. The formation of these (5,7)-ring defects in PAHs may be well supported in AGB stars or PNe. Those environments strongly enable the transition from the ground state to the defect state. Therefore the knowledge of the IR spectra of these molecules will support future investigations aiming for a thorough understanding of the unidentified IR emission bands. 8 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2014
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Bersenkowitsch, Nina K.; Ončák, Milan; Heller, Jakob; van der Linde, Christian; +1 Authors

    AbstractMarine aerosols consist of a variety of compounds and play an important role in many atmospheric processes. In the present study, sodium iodide clusters with their simple isotope pattern serve as model systems for laboratory studies to investigate the role of iodide in the photochemical processing of sea‐salt aerosols. Salt clusters doped with camphor, formate and pyruvate are studied in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT‐ICR MS) coupled to a tunable laser system in both UV and IR range. The analysis is supported by ab initio calculations of absorption spectra and energetics of dissociative channels. We provide quantitative analysis of IRMPD measurements by reconstructing one‐photon spectra and comparing them with the calculated ones. While neutral camphor is adsorbed on the cluster surface, the formate and pyruvate ions replace an iodide ion. The photodissociation spectra revealed several wavelength‐specific fragmentation pathways, including the carbon dioxide radical anion formed by photolysis of pyruvate. Camphor and pyruvate doped clusters absorb in the spectral region above 290 nm, which is relevant for tropospheric photochemistry, leading to internal conversion followed by intramolecular vibrational redistribution, which leads to decomposition of the cluster. Potential photodissociation products of pyruvate in the actinic region may be formed with a cross section of <2×10−20 cm2, determined by the experimental noise level.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    Chemistry - A European Journal
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    Chemistry - A European Journal
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      Chemistry - A European Journal
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    Authors: F. Maussion; A. Butenko; N. Champollion; M. Dusch; +19 Authors

    Despite their importance for sea-level rise, seasonal water availability, and as a source of geohazards, mountain glaciers are one of the few remaining subsystems of the global climate system for which no globally applicable, open source, community-driven model exists. Here we present the Open Global Glacier Model (OGGM), developed to provide a modular and open-source numerical model framework for simulating past and future change of any glacier in the world. The modeling chain comprises data downloading tools (glacier outlines, topography, climate, validation data), a preprocessing module, a mass-balance model, a distributed ice thickness estimation model, and an ice-flow model. The monthly mass balance is obtained from gridded climate data and a temperature index melt model. To our knowledge, OGGM is the first global model to explicitly simulate glacier dynamics: the model relies on the shallow-ice approximation to compute the depth-integrated flux of ice along multiple connected flow lines. In this paper, we describe and illustrate each processing step by applying the model to a selection of glaciers before running global simulations under idealized climate forcings. Even without an in-depth calibration, the model shows very realistic behavior. We are able to reproduce earlier estimates of global glacier volume by varying the ice dynamical parameters within a range of plausible values. At the same time, the increased complexity of OGGM compared to other prevalent global glacier models comes at a reasonable computational cost: several dozen glaciers can be simulated on a personal computer, whereas global simulations realized in a supercomputing environment take up to a few hours per century. Thanks to the modular framework, modules of various complexity can be added to the code base, which allows for new kinds of model intercomparison studies in a controlled environment. Future developments will add new physical processes to the model as well as automated calibration tools. Extensions or alternative parameterizations can be easily added by the community thanks to comprehensive documentation. OGGM spans a wide range of applications, from ice–climate interaction studies at millennial timescales to estimates of the contribution of glaciers to past and future sea-level change. It has the potential to become a self-sustained community-driven model for global and regional glacier evolution. Geoscientific Model Development, 12 (3) ISSN:1991-9603 ISSN:1991-959X

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    Geoscientific Model Development
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    Article . 2019
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Mario Spera; Michela Mapelli; Nicola Giacobbo; Alessandro A. Trani; +2 Authors

    Studying the formation and evolution of black hole binaries (BHBs) is essential for the interpretation of current and forthcoming gravitational wave (GW) detections. We investigate the statistics of BHBs that form from isolated binaries, by means of a new version of the SEVN population-synthesis code. SEVN integrates stellar evolution by interpolation over a grid of stellar evolution tracks. We upgraded SEVN to include binary stellar evolution processes and we used it to evolve a sample of $1.5\times{}10^8$ binary systems, with metallicity in the range $\left[10^{-4};4\times 10^{-2}\right]$. From our simulations, we find that the mass distribution of black holes (BHs) in double compact-object binaries is remarkably similar to the one obtained considering only single stellar evolution. The maximum BH mass we obtain is $\sim 30$, $45$ and $55\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ at metallicity $Z=2\times 10^{-2}$, $6\times 10^{-3}$, and $10^{-4}$, respectively. A few massive single BHs may also form ($\lesssim 0.1\%$ of the total number of BHs), with mass up to $\sim 65$, $90$ and $145\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ at $Z=2\times 10^{-2}$, $6\times 10^{-3}$, and $10^{-4}$, respectively. These BHs fall in the mass gap predicted from pair-instability supernovae. We also show that the most massive BHBs are unlikely to merge within a Hubble time. In our simulations, merging BHs like GW151226 and GW170608, form at all metallicities, the high-mass systems (like GW150914, GW170814 and GW170104) originate from metal poor ($Z\lesssim{}6\times 10^{-3}$) progenitors, whereas GW170729-like systems are hard to form, even at $Z = 10^{-4}$. The BHB merger rate in the local Universe obtained from our simulations is $\sim 90 \mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$, consistent with the rate inferred from LIGO-Virgo data. Comment: 26 pages, 14 figures, MNRAS accepted

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    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2018
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      Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Heller, Valentin; Chen, Fan; Brühl, Markus; Gabl, Roman; +3 Authors

    Mass balance analysis of ice sheets is a key component to understand the effects of global warming. A significant component of ice sheet and shelf mass balance is iceberg calving, which can generate large tsunamis endangering human beings and coastal infrastructure. Such iceberg-tsunamis have reached amplitudes of 50 m and destroyed harbours. Calving icebergs interact with the surrounding water through different mechanisms and we investigate five; A: capsizing, B: gravity-dominated fall, C: buoyancy-dominated fall, D: gravity-dominated overturning and E: buoyancy-dominated overturning. Gravity-dominated icebergs essentially fall into the water body whereas buoyancy-dominated icebergs rise to the water surface. We find with unique large-scale laboratory experiments that iceberg-tsunami heights from gravity-dominated mechanisms (B and D) are roughly an order of magnitude larger than from A, C and E. A theoretical model for released iceberg energy supports this finding and the measured wave periods upscaled to Greenlandic outlet glaciers agree with field observations. Whilst existing empirical equations for landslide-tsunamis establish estimates of an upper envelope of the maximum iceberg-tsunami heights, they fail to capture the physics of most iceberg-tsunami mechanisms. Scientific Reports, 9 (1) ISSN:2045-2322

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Scientific Reports
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2019
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2019
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2019
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jakob Heller; Milan Ončák; Nina K. Bersenkowitsch; Christian van der Linde; +1 Authors

    Charged cesium iodide clusters doped with mono-, di- and triglycine serve as a model system for sea salt aerosols containing biological molecules. Here, we investigate reactions of these complexes under infrared irradiation, with spectra obtained by infrared multiple photon dissociation. The cluster ions are generated via electrospray ionization and analyzed in the cell of a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer. Depending on the cluster size and peptide length, loss of HI or loss of a glycine unit is observed. The experimental measurements are supported by quantum chemical calculations. We show that N-H and O-H stretching modes dominate the spectrum, with large shifts depending on local interactions, namely due to interaction with iodide anions or intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Both experiment and theory indicate that several isomers are present in the experimental mixture, with different infrared fingerprints as well as dissociation pathways.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
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    European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eimear M. Dunne; Hamish Gordon; Andreas Kürten; Joao Almeida; +55 Authors

    New particle formation in the atmosphere produces around half of the cloud condensation nuclei that seed cloud droplets. Such particles have a pivotal role in determining the properties of clouds and the global radiation balance. Dunne et al. used the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN to construct a model of aerosol formation based on laboratory measured nucleation rates. They found that nearly all nucleation involves either ammonia or biogenic organic compounds. Furthermore in the present day atmosphere cosmic ray intensity cannot meaningfully affect climate via nucleation.Science this issue p. 1119Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast gas phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. We built a global model of aerosol formation by using extensive laboratory measurements of rates of nucleation involving sulfuric acid ammonia ions and organic compounds conducted in the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds in addition to sulfuric acid. A considerable fraction of nucleation involves ions but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied variations in cosmic ray intensity do not appreciably affect climate through nucleation in the present day atmosphere.U http://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/354/6316/1119.full.pdf

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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc...
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2016
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    Science
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