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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: B. Haddadi; Olgeir Sigmarsson; Gudrún Larsen;

    AbstractBasalt eruptions at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, are generally of low intensity; however, occasionally, an order of magnitude larger eruptions occur. In order to discuss the reasons for this difference, the degassing budget of S and Cl and crystallization conditions of the eruptive magma were determined from volatile concentration measured in melt inclusion (MI) and groundmass glass and thermobarometry, respectively. Tephra of two of the largest historical eruptions (2011 and 1873) and two much smaller eruptions (2004 and 1823) were investigated. Sulfur and Cl concentrations are higher in groundmass glass of the smaller eruptions due to incomplete outgassing caused by melt quenching in contact with glacial water. Sulfur concentration and degassing budget correlate with erupted magma volumes. Higher volatile concentrations of MI from the larger eruptions reflect important recharge of gas‐rich magma from depth. The recharge causes a high‐magnitude eruption followed by increased eruption frequency over the following decades. Pressure and temperature estimates of crystallization are obtained through equilibrium clinopyroxene‐glass pairs, where crystals adjacent to, and in textural equilibrium with, both groundmass glass and that of MI were measured. An average crystallization pressure of 4 ± 1 kbar corresponding to approximately 15 ± 5 km depth was obtained together with a considerable temperature range, 1065–1175°C. Similar crystallization depths are obtained for the basalt of the 2014–2015 Bárðarbunga rifting event and to a low resistivity layer revealed by magnetotelluric surveys. Therefore, an important magma storage depth is inferred at lower crustal depth above the center of the Iceland mantle plume.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Solid Earth
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Solid Earth
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx; I. R. van der Velde; Maarten Krol; Luciana V. Gatti; +10 Authors

    AbstractTwo major droughts in the past decade had large impacts on carbon exchange in the Amazon. Recent analysis of vertical profile measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CO by Gatti et al. (2014) suggests that the 2010 drought turned the normally close‐to‐neutral annual Amazon carbon balance into a substantial source of nearly 0.5 PgC/yr, revealing a strong drought response. In this study, we revisit this hypothesis and interpret not only the same CO2/CO vertical profile measurements but also additional constraints on carbon exchange such as satellite observations of CO, burned area, and fire hot spots. The results from our CarbonTracker South America data assimilation system suggest that carbon uptake by vegetation was indeed reduced in 2010 but that the magnitude of the decrease strongly depends on the estimated 2010 and 2011 biomass burning emissions. We have used fire products based on burned area (Global Fire Emissions Database version 4), satellite‐observed CO columns (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), fire radiative power (Global Fire Assimilation System version 1), and fire hot spots (Fire Inventory from NCAR version 1), and found an increase in biomass burning emissions in 2010 compared to 2011 of 0.16 to 0.24 PgC/yr. We derived a decrease of biospheric uptake ranging from 0.08 to 0.26 PgC/yr, with the range determined from a set of alternative inversions using different biomass burning estimates. Our numerical analysis of the 2010 Amazon drought results in a total reduction of carbon uptake of 0.24 to 0.50 PgC/yr and turns the balance from carbon sink to source. Our findings support the suggestion that the hydrological cycle will be an important driver of future changes in Amazonian carbon exchange.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2015
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Research@WUR; Global Biogeochemical Cycles
    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Other literature type . Article . 2015
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
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    Conference object . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Research@WUR; Global Biogeochemical Cycles
      Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Other literature type . Article . 2015
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2015
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      Conference object . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eimear M. Dunne; Hamish Gordon; Andreas Kürten; Joao Almeida; +55 Authors

    New particle formation in the atmosphere produces around half of the cloud condensation nuclei that seed cloud droplets. Such particles have a pivotal role in determining the properties of clouds and the global radiation balance. Dunne et al. used the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN to construct a model of aerosol formation based on laboratory measured nucleation rates. They found that nearly all nucleation involves either ammonia or biogenic organic compounds. Furthermore in the present day atmosphere cosmic ray intensity cannot meaningfully affect climate via nucleation.Science this issue p. 1119Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast gas phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. We built a global model of aerosol formation by using extensive laboratory measurements of rates of nucleation involving sulfuric acid ammonia ions and organic compounds conducted in the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds in addition to sulfuric acid. A considerable fraction of nucleation involves ions but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied variations in cosmic ray intensity do not appreciably affect climate through nucleation in the present day atmosphere.U http://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/354/6316/1119.full.pdf

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sciencearrow_drop_down
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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc...
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2016
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    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sciencearrow_drop_down
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      Caltech Authors
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc...
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Mercone, D.; Thomson, J.; Croudace, I.; Siani, G.; +2 Authors

    Slowly accumulated (<5 cm kyr−1) and rapidly accumulated (5–20 cm kyr−1) sediments have been compared to define the initiation and termination times of the most recent sapropel (S1) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The Ba/Al ratio has been employed as a more persistent index of productivity than Corg. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of pelagic foraminifera indicates a maximum duration for increased Ba/Al levels in Sl from ∼9500–6000 (uncorrected radiocarbon convention years B.P.) in the rapidly accumulated sediments and ∼9500–5300 years B.P. in the slowly accumulated sediments. This difference is ascribed to bioturbation affecting the slower accumulated Sl sediments. In the two most rapidly accumulated Sl units, from the Adriatic and Aegean Seas, there is a “saddle” of lower values centered on 7500 years B.P. in the Corg and Ba/Al profiles, so that the visual Sl unit appears as a doublet. Geochemical evidence indicates that this intervening period is best interpreted as an episode of increased ventilation and bottom water oxygenation during the period of sapropel accumulation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Vrije Univer...arrow_drop_down
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    Paleoceanography
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    Paleoceanography
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2000
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      Paleoceanography
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2000
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    Authors: Jane H. Scarrow; Axel K. Schmitt; Jenni Barclay; Matthew S.A. Horstwood; +2 Authors

    Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, erupted from 1995 to 2010, with activity including dome growth, destructive pyroclastic density currents and Vulcanian explosions. Monitoring data, such as gas emissions, show the system is still in a state of unrest. The recent eruptions provide an opportunity to study, in real time, a complex subduction-related subvolcanic transaustal melt-mush reservoir, its magma fluxes, and the timing of crystal and melt storage prior to eruptive paroxysms. How and when mush destabilisation occurs prior to volcanic eruptions continues to be a question of intense debate. Evidence of mafic magma intrusion, a potential eruptive trigger, is preserved in enclaves with quenched and diffuse margins that are mingled with crystal-rich andesite. Here, in this first study of Soufriere Hills Volcano zircon, we report zircon ages and compositions for mafic-intermediate enclaves and host andesites from the most recent dome collapse in 2010 to place temporal constraints on magma reservoir processes. Zircon U-238-Th-230 ages disequilibrium crystallisation ages ranging between c. 2-250 ka constrain the longevity of the magmatic plumbing system. Uniform Hf isotopes, epsilon Hf 11.3 +/- 12 to 14.6 +/- 1.5, indicate invariant compositions that are typical for island arc magma sources. Zircon trace element concentrations and Ti-in-zircon crystallisation temperatures indicate crystallisation in isolated, small-volume, lenses with variable fractions of melt of heterogeneous compositions. We suggest amalgamation of assorted crystal cargoes from these lenses occurred prior to eruption during mush destabilisation triggered by mafic magma recharge. Zircon textures, on the other hand, shed light on recent centimetre-scale magma mingling immediately prior to eruption. Euhedral-subhedral zircon is preferentially preserved in or near quenched contacts of the least-evolved enclave and host andesite. By contrast, reheating of the andesite by the mafic magma recharge in the presence of zircon-undersaturated melts promoted zircon resorption. This led to the formation of subhedral-anhedral corroded zircon that is typical in the host andesite mush. Zircon thus reveals processes ranging from 100,000s of years of andesite storage to short-term partial destruction in response to transient heating and magma mixing events. This project has received funding from the European Union's Hori-zon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 749611 (JHS) . We also ac-knowledge funding from the Natural Environment Research Council Isotope Geoscience Facilities Steering Committee, grant IP-1746-1117 (JB) . The work has been financially supported by the Spanish grant CGL 2017-84469-P (JHS) . Funding for open access charge: Universidad de Granada/CBUA. Alexander Varychev at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, and Jeremy Rushton at the British Geological Survey, U.K., are thanked for help with analytical work. Jose Luis Macias is thanked for editorial handling. We are obliged to two anonymous reviewers for the time and effort they took to help us improve the clarity and rigour of our interpretations. 19 Natural Environment Research Council Isotope Geoscience Facilities Steering Committee IP-1746-1117 Spanish Government CGL 2017-84469-P Universidad de Granada/CBUA European Commission 749611

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    Authors: Thompson, David; Bony, Sandrine; Li, Ying;

    Significance The study explores two fundamental problems in climate science: ( i ) The physical factors that govern the depth of the troposphere, and ( ii ) the response of clouds to climate change. Previous research has argued that tropical anvil temperatures are strongly constrained by the fundamental thermodynamic properties of water vapor. Here we argue that the same basic thermodynamic properties strongly constrain the depth of the troposphere, the temperature of high clouds, and the amplitude of large-scale dynamics throughout the globe. The results suggest that the positive climate feedbacks associated with tropical high clouds also operate in the extratropics, and that the top of the troposphere should remain at roughly the same temperature throughout the globe as the climate system warms.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2017
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    Authors: Brett B. Palm; Pedro Campuzano-Jost; Douglas A. Day; Amber M. Ortega; +12 Authors

    Abstract. Ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH, O3, or NO3 radicals using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) during the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio–hydro–atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic aerosol (OA) aging. A wide range of equivalent atmospheric photochemical ages was sampled, from hours up to days (for O3 and NO3) or weeks (for OH). Ambient air processed by the OFR was typically sampled every 20–30 min, in order to determine how the availability of SOA precursor gases in ambient air changed with diurnal and synoptic conditions, for each of the three oxidants. More SOA was formed during nighttime than daytime for all three oxidants, indicating that SOA precursor concentrations were higher at night. At all times of day, OH oxidation led to approximately 4 times more SOA formation than either O3 or NO3 oxidation. This is likely because O3 and NO3 will only react with gases containing C = C bonds (e.g., terpenes) to form SOA but will not react appreciably with many of their oxidation products or any species in the gas phase that lacks a C = C bond (e.g., pinonic acid, alkanes). In contrast, OH can continue to react with compounds that lack C = C bonds to produce SOA. Closure was achieved between the amount of SOA formed from O3 and NO3 oxidation in the OFR and the SOA predicted to form from measured concentrations of ambient monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes using published chamber yields. This is in contrast to previous work at this site (Palm et al., 2016), which has shown that a source of SOA from semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) 3.4 times larger than the source from measured VOCs is needed to explain the measured SOA formation from OH oxidation. This work suggests that those S/IVOCs typically do not contain C = C bonds. O3 and NO3 oxidation produced SOA with elemental O : C and H : C similar to the least-oxidized OA observed in local ambient air, and neither oxidant led to net mass loss at the highest exposures, in contrast to OH oxidation. An OH exposure in the OFR equivalent to several hours of atmospheric aging also produced SOA with O : C and H : C values similar to ambient OA, while higher aging (days–weeks) led to formation of SOA with progressively higher O : C and lower H : C (and net mass loss at the highest exposures). NO3 oxidation led to the production of particulate organic nitrates (pRONO2), while OH and O3 oxidation (under low NO) did not, as expected. These measurements of SOA formation provide the first direct comparison of SOA formation potential and chemical evolution from OH, O3, and NO3 oxidation in the real atmosphere and help to clarify the oxidation processes that lead to SOA formation from biogenic hydrocarbons.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Authors: Baills, Audrey; Grandjean, Gilles; Maspataud, Aurelie; Ettinger, Susanne; +6 Authors

    International audience; The Action Database (ADB) was developed during the ESPREssO project (Enhancing Synergies for Disaster Prevention in the European Union) in order to store and analyze relevant ideas emerging during the project to deal with the challenges. It provides the opportunity to formalize discussions and to store their content in a synthetic format, as well as to collect experiences and evaluate the impacts they had at their respective scales of implementation and on different parameters. The major aim of the ESPREssO-ADB tool, and its main innovation, is to deal with multi-hazard and multi-challenge actions, in an international context and notably in a cross-border initiative. The ESPREssO project aimed at contributing to a new strategic vision on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) in Europe. To do so, stakeholders working with CCA and/or DRR in Europe were consulted to identify measures boosting adaptation or societies' resilience. Each idea, measure or comment was stored and ranked in the ADB using qualitative criteria based on the Sendai Priorities and the SHIELD model proposed by the ESPREssO Team. Each action was assessed through multi-criteria analysis and effectiveness was approached under two different angles. The first one in line with the priorities of the Sendai Framework; and the second one with the SHIELD model. This model incorporate recommendations on how to optimize risk management capabilities through DRR. Positive actions had fed the Vision Paper and Guidelines produced by the project. This paper describes in details the ADB structure and the multi-criteria analysis performed.

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    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: C. Laufkötter; M. Vogt; N. Gruber; M. Aita-Noguchi; +16 Authors

    Past model studies have projected a global decrease in marine net primary production (NPP) over the 21st century, but these studies focused on the multi-model mean rather than on the large inter-model differences. Here, we analyze model-simulated changes in NPP for the 21st century under IPCC's high-emission scenario RCP8.5. We use a suite of nine coupled carbon–climate Earth system models with embedded marine ecosystem models and focus on the spread between the different models and the underlying reasons. Globally, NPP decreases in five out of the nine models over the course of the 21st century, while three show no significant trend and one even simulates an increase. The largest model spread occurs in the low latitudes (between 30° S and 30° N), with individual models simulating relative changes between −25 and +40 %. Of the seven models diagnosing a net decrease in NPP in the low latitudes, only three simulate this to be a consequence of the classical interpretation, i.e., a stronger nutrient limitation due to increased stratification leading to reduced phytoplankton growth. In the other four, warming-induced increases in phytoplankton growth outbalance the stronger nutrient limitation. However, temperature-driven increases in grazing and other loss processes cause a net decrease in phytoplankton biomass and reduce NPP despite higher growth rates. One model projects a strong increase in NPP in the low latitudes, caused by an intensification of the microbial loop, while NPP in the remaining model changes by less than 0.5 %. While models consistently project increases NPP in the Southern Ocean, the regional inter-model range is also very substantial. In most models, this increase in NPP is driven by temperature, but it is also modulated by changes in light, macronutrients and iron as well as grazing. Overall, current projections of future changes in global marine NPP are subject to large uncertainties and necessitate a dedicated and sustained effort to improve the models and the concepts and data that guide their development. Biogeosciences, 12 (23) ISSN:1726-4170

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    OpenUCT
    Article . 2015
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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2015
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-12...
    Preprint . 2015
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Research Collection
    Article . 2015
    License: CC BY
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    https://www.biogeosciences.net...
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
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    Other literature type . 2015
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      OpenUCT
      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2015
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2015
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-12...
      Preprint . 2015
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Research Collection
      Article . 2015
      License: CC BY
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      Article . 2015
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      Other literature type . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Incarbona A; Sprovieri M; Di Stefano A; Di Stefano E; +5 Authors

    The study of planktonic organisms during abrupt climatic variations of the last glacial period (Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations, D-O) may reveal important insights on climatic, oceanographic and biological interactions. Here we present planktic foraminifera and coccolithophore data collected at the Ocean Drilling Program Site 963 (Sicily Channel), with a mean sampling resolution of respectively 43.5 and 98.9. yr, over the interval between 70,000 and 20,000. yr ago. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction suggests that three different scenarios can be seen across each D-O cycle: 1. oligotrophic surface water and a deep thermocline for the early Interstadials; 2. a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum and coccolithophore winter/spring blooming in the late Interstadials; 3. reduced productivity together with the shallowing of the nutricline depth during Stadials and Heinrich events. The unique mode of productivity dynamics is corroborated by comparing our paleoecological results with those published from high-resolution cores in the Alboran Sea clearly indicating reduced trophic levels during Stadials and Heinrich events. Finally, we argue that the density contrast between the Atlantic water inflow and subsurface water may have affected productivity dynamics in such a large area. The strong vertical density gradient may have hampered the vertical convection of the water column, producing a negative effect on biological productivity, especially during Stadial phases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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