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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jane H. Scarrow; Axel K. Schmitt; Jenni Barclay; Matthew S.A. Horstwood; +2 Authors

    Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, erupted from 1995 to 2010, with activity including dome growth, destructive pyroclastic density currents and Vulcanian explosions. Monitoring data, such as gas emissions, show the system is still in a state of unrest. The recent eruptions provide an opportunity to study, in real time, a complex subduction-related subvolcanic transaustal melt-mush reservoir, its magma fluxes, and the timing of crystal and melt storage prior to eruptive paroxysms. How and when mush destabilisation occurs prior to volcanic eruptions continues to be a question of intense debate. Evidence of mafic magma intrusion, a potential eruptive trigger, is preserved in enclaves with quenched and diffuse margins that are mingled with crystal-rich andesite. Here, in this first study of Soufriere Hills Volcano zircon, we report zircon ages and compositions for mafic-intermediate enclaves and host andesites from the most recent dome collapse in 2010 to place temporal constraints on magma reservoir processes. Zircon U-238-Th-230 ages disequilibrium crystallisation ages ranging between c. 2-250 ka constrain the longevity of the magmatic plumbing system. Uniform Hf isotopes, epsilon Hf 11.3 +/- 12 to 14.6 +/- 1.5, indicate invariant compositions that are typical for island arc magma sources. Zircon trace element concentrations and Ti-in-zircon crystallisation temperatures indicate crystallisation in isolated, small-volume, lenses with variable fractions of melt of heterogeneous compositions. We suggest amalgamation of assorted crystal cargoes from these lenses occurred prior to eruption during mush destabilisation triggered by mafic magma recharge. Zircon textures, on the other hand, shed light on recent centimetre-scale magma mingling immediately prior to eruption. Euhedral-subhedral zircon is preferentially preserved in or near quenched contacts of the least-evolved enclave and host andesite. By contrast, reheating of the andesite by the mafic magma recharge in the presence of zircon-undersaturated melts promoted zircon resorption. This led to the formation of subhedral-anhedral corroded zircon that is typical in the host andesite mush. Zircon thus reveals processes ranging from 100,000s of years of andesite storage to short-term partial destruction in response to transient heating and magma mixing events. This project has received funding from the European Union's Hori-zon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 749611 (JHS) . We also ac-knowledge funding from the Natural Environment Research Council Isotope Geoscience Facilities Steering Committee, grant IP-1746-1117 (JB) . The work has been financially supported by the Spanish grant CGL 2017-84469-P (JHS) . Funding for open access charge: Universidad de Granada/CBUA. Alexander Varychev at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, and Jeremy Rushton at the British Geological Survey, U.K., are thanked for help with analytical work. Jose Luis Macias is thanked for editorial handling. We are obliged to two anonymous reviewers for the time and effort they took to help us improve the clarity and rigour of our interpretations. 19 Natural Environment Research Council Isotope Geoscience Facilities Steering Committee IP-1746-1117 Spanish Government CGL 2017-84469-P Universidad de Granada/CBUA European Commission 749611

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Thompson, David; Bony, Sandrine; Li, Ying;

    Significance The study explores two fundamental problems in climate science: ( i ) The physical factors that govern the depth of the troposphere, and ( ii ) the response of clouds to climate change. Previous research has argued that tropical anvil temperatures are strongly constrained by the fundamental thermodynamic properties of water vapor. Here we argue that the same basic thermodynamic properties strongly constrain the depth of the troposphere, the temperature of high clouds, and the amplitude of large-scale dynamics throughout the globe. The results suggest that the positive climate feedbacks associated with tropical high clouds also operate in the extratropics, and that the top of the troposphere should remain at roughly the same temperature throughout the globe as the climate system warms.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2017
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Olsen, Are; Sabine, Christopher L.; +7 Authors

    Net oceanic uptake of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) reduces global warming but also leads to ocean acidification [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007]. Understanding and predicting changes in the ocean carbon sink are critical to assessments of future climate change. Surface water CO2 measurements suggest large year‐to‐year variations in oceanic CO2 uptake for several regions [Doney et al., 2009]. However, there is much debate on whether these changes are cyclical or indicative of long‐term trends. Sustained, globally coordinated observations of the surface ocean carbon cycle and systematic handling of such data are essential for assessing variation and trends in regional and global ocean carbon uptake, information necessary for accurate estimates of global and national carbon budgets.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Georg H. Engelhard; Ruth H. Thurstan; Brian R. MacKenzie; Heidi K. Alleway; +13 Authors

    Abstract As a discipline, marine historical ecology (MHE) has contributed significantly to our understanding of the past state of the marine environment when levels of human impact were often very different from those today. What is less widely known is that insights from MHE have made headway into being applied within the context of present-day and long-term management and policy. This study draws attention to the applied value of MHE. We demonstrate that a broad knowledge base exists with potential for management application and advice, including the development of baselines and reference levels. Using a number of case studies from around the world, we showcase the value of historical ecology in understanding change and emphasize how it either has already informed management or has the potential to do so soon. We discuss these case studies in a context of the science–policy interface around six themes that are frequently targeted by current marine and maritime policies: climate change, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem structure, habitat integrity, food security, and human governance. We encourage science–policy bodies to actively engage with contributions from MHE, as well-informed policy decisions need to be framed within the context of historical reference points and past resource or ecosystem changes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ICES Journal of Mari...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    ICES Journal of Marine Science
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ICES Journal of Mari...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2016
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      ICES Journal of Marine Science
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Tayyaba Zafar; Palle Møller; D. D Watson; John C. Lattanzio; +15 Authors

    Evolved asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are important contributors to the elements that form dust in the interstellar medium of galaxies, in particular, carbon and iron. However, they require at least a Gyr to start producing these elements, therefore, a change in dust quantity or properties may appear at high redshifts. In this work, we use extinction of γ-ray burst (GRB) afterglows as a tool to look for variations in dust properties at z ≥ 3. We use a spectroscopically selected sample of GRB afterglows observed with the VLT/X-shooter instrument to determine extinction curves out to high redshifts. We present 10 new z ≥ 3 X-shooter GRBs of which six are dusty. Combining these with individual extinction curves of three previously known z ≥ 3 GRBs, we find an average extinction curve consistent with the SMC-Bar. A comparison with spectroscopically selected GRBs at all redshifts indicates a drop in visual extinction (AV) at z > 3.5 with no moderate or high-extinction bursts. We check for observational bias using template spectra and find that GRBs up to z ∼ 8 are detectable with X-shooter up to AV ∼ 0.3 mag. Although other biases are noted, a uniformly low dust content above z > 3.5 indicates a real drop, suggesting a transition in dust properties and/or available dust building blocks. The remarkable increase in dust content at z 3.5 dust drop could be the result of low stellar masses of GRB host galaxies. We are thankful to James Dunlop for a useful referee report. TZ is thankful to Maryam Arabsalmani for helpful discussions. The X-ray data for this work are obtained from the UK Swift Science Data Center at the University of Leicester. We are thankful to Pilar Gil Pons and Carolyn Doherty for useful discussions. DW is supported by Independent Research Fund Denmark grant DFF - 7014-00017. JJ acknowledges support from NOVA and NWO-FAPESP grant for advanced instrumentation in astronomy. Publisher's version (útgefin grein) Peer Reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2018
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      Opin visindi
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: A. R. Ridden-Harper; Ignas Snellen; Christoph U. Keller; R. de Kok; +6 Authors

    [Abridged] The aim of this work is to search for an absorption signal from exospheric sodium (Na) and singly ionized calcium (Ca$^+$) in the optical transmission spectrum of the hot rocky super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Although the current best-fitting models to the planet mass and radius require a possible atmospheric component, uncertainties in the radius exist, making it possible that 55 Cancri e could be a hot rocky planet without an atmosphere. High resolution (R$\sim$110000) time-series spectra of five transits of 55 Cancri e, obtained with three different telescopes (UVES/VLT, HARPS/ESO 3.6m & HARPS-N/TNG) were analysed. Targeting the sodium D lines and the calcium H and K lines, the potential planet exospheric signal was filtered out from the much stronger stellar and telluric signals, making use of the change of the radial component of the orbital velocity of the planet over the transit from -57 to +57 km/sec. Combining all five transit data sets, we detect a signal potentially associated with sodium in the planet exosphere at a statistical significance level of 3$\sigma$. Combining the four HARPS transits that cover the calcium H and K lines, we also find a potential signal from ionized calcium (4.1 $\sigma$). Interestingly, this latter signal originates from just one of the transit measurements - with a 4.9$\sigma$ detection at this epoch. Unfortunately, due to the low significance of the measured sodium signal and the potentially variable Ca$^+$ signal, we estimate the p-values of these signals to be too high (corresponding to <4$\sigma$) to claim unambiguous exospheric detections. By comparing the observed signals with artificial signals injected early in the analysis, the absorption by Na and Ca$^+$ are estimated to be at a level of approximately 2.3$\times 10^{-3}$ and 7.0$\times 10^{-2}$ respectively, relative to the stellar spectrum. Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures, submission updated after English language editing, submission updated to correct a mistaken cross-reference noticed in A&A proof

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    Article . 2016
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    Research@WUR; Astronomy and Astrophysics; NARCIS
    Other literature type . Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Article . 2016
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      Research@WUR; Astronomy and Astrophysics; NARCIS
      Other literature type . Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Lene Lange; Kevin O. Connor; Sigurjon Arason; Uffe Bundgård-Jørgensen; +17 Authors

    This paper gives an overview of development of the EU-bioeconomy, 2014-2020. The Vision of the new Circular Bio-based Economy, CBE is presented: Unlocking the full potential of all types of sustainably sourced biomass, crop residues, industrial side-streams, and wastes by transforming it into value-added products. The resulting product portfolio consists of a wide spectrum of value-added products, addressing societal and consumer needs. Food and feed, bio-based chemicals, materials, healthpromoting products; and bio-based fuels. The pillars of CBE are described, including biotechnology, microbial production, enzyme technology, green chemistry, integrated physical/chemical processing, policies, conducive framework conditions and public private partnerships. Drivers of CBE are analyzed: Biomass supply, biorefineries, value chain clusters, rural development, farmers, foresters and mariners; urgent need for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and stopping biodiversity loss. Improved framework conditions can be drivers but also obstacles if not updated to the era of circularity. Key figures, across the entire BBI-JU project portfolio (20142020) are provided, including expansion into biomass feedstocks, terrestrial and aquatic, and an impressive broadening of bio-based product portfolio, including higher-value, healthpromoting products for man, animal, plants and soil. Parallel to this, diversification of industrial segments and types of funding instruments developed, reflecting industrial needs and academic research involvement. Impact assessment is highlighted. A number of specific recommendations are given; e.g., including international win/win CBEcollaborations, as e.g., expanding African EU collaboration into CBE. In contrast to fossil resources biological resources are found worldwide. In its outset, circular biobased economy, can be implemented all over, in a just manner, not the least stimulating rural development This study received funding only for covering the production costs (carried by the public BBI-JU secretariat). info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
    Other literature type . Review . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
      Other literature type . Review . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Wolfgang Kausch; Stefan Kimeswenger; Stefan Noll; Amy Jones;

    Abstract. Rotational temperatures Trot derived from lines of the same OH band are an important method to study the dynamics and long-term trends in the mesopause region near 87 km. To measure realistic temperatures, the rotational level populations have to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). However, this might not be fulfilled, especially at high emission altitudes. In order to quantify possible non-LTE contributions to the OH Trot as a function of the upper vibrational level v′, we studied a sample of 343 echelle spectra taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data allowed us to analyse 25 OH bands in each spectrum. Moreover, we could measure lines of O2b(0-1), which peaks at about 94 to 95 km, and O2a(0-0) with an emission peak at about 90 km. The latter altitude is reached in the second half of the night after a rise of several km because of the decay of a daytime population of excited O2. Since the radiative lifetimes for the upper levels of the two O2 bands are relatively long, the derived Trot are not significantly affected by non-LTE contributions. These bands are well suited for a comparison with OH if the differences in the emission profiles are corrected. For different sample averages, we made these corrections by using OH emission, O2a(0-0) emission, and CO2-based temperature profile data from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. The procedure relies on differences of profile-weighted SABER temperatures. For an O2a(0-0)-based reference profile at 90 km, we found a good agreement of the O2 with the SABER-related temperatures, whereas the OH temperatures, especially for the high and even v′, showed significant excesses with a maximum of more than 10 K for v′ = 8. The exact value depends on the selected lines and molecular parameters. We could also find a nocturnal trend towards higher non-LTE effects, particularly for high v′. The amplitude of these variations can be about 2 K or less, which tends to be significantly smaller than the total amount of the non-LTE contributions. The variations revealed may be important for dynamical studies based on Trot derived from OH bands with high v′.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP); OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP); OpenAPC Global Initiative
      Article . Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Amann-Winkel, K.; Gainaru, C.; Handle, P. H.; Seidl, M.; +3 Authors

    The glassy states of water are of common interest as the majority of H2O in space is in the glassy state and especially because a proper description of this phenomenon is considered to be the key to our understanding why liquid water shows exceptional properties, different from all other liquids. The occurrence of water's calorimetric glass transition of low-density amorphous ice at 136 K has been discussed controversially for many years because its calorimetric signature is very feeble. Here, we report that high-density amorphous ice at ambient pressure shows a distinct calorimetric glass transitions at 116 K and present evidence that this second glass transition involves liquid-like translational mobility of water molecules. This "double Tg scenario" is related to the coexistence of two liquid phases. The calorimetric signature of the second glass transition is much less feeble, with a heat capacity increase at Tg,2 about five times as large as at Tg,1. By using broadband-dielectric spectroscopy we resolve loss peaks yielding relaxation times near 100 s at 126 K for low-density amorphous ice and at 110 K for high-density amorphous ice as signatures of these two distinct glass transitions. Temperature-dependent dielectric data and heating-rate-dependent calorimetric data allow us to construct the relaxation map for the two distinct phases of water and to extract fragility indices m = 14 for the low-density and m = 20-25 for the high-density liquid. Thus, low-density liquid is classified as the strongest of all liquids known ("superstrong"), and also high-density liquid is classified as a strong liquid.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2013
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    Authors: R. W. Jones; Ian A. Renfrew; Andrew Orr; Benjamin G. M. Webber; +2 Authors

    AbstractThe glaciers within the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE), West Antarctica, are amongst the most rapidly retreating in Antarctica. Meteorological reanalysis products are widely used to help understand and simulate the processes causing this retreat. Here we provide an evaluation against observations of four of the latest global reanalysis products within the ASE region—the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA‐I), Japanese 55‐year Reanalysis (JRA‐55), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and Modern Era Retrospective‐Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The observations comprise data from four automatic weather stations (AWSs), three research vessel cruises, and a new set of 38 radiosondes all within the period 2009–2014. All four reanalyses produce 2 m temperature fields that are colder than AWS observations, with the biases varying from approximately −1.8°C (ERA‐I) to −6.8°C (MERRA). Over the Amundsen Sea, spatially averaged summertime biases are between −0.4°C (JRA‐55) and −2.1°C (MERRA) with notably larger cold biases close to the continent (up to −6°C) in all reanalyses. All four reanalyses underestimate near‐surface wind speed at high wind speeds (>15 m s−1) and exhibit dry biases and relatively large root‐mean‐square errors (RMSE) in specific humidity. A comparison to the radiosonde soundings shows that the cold, dry bias at the surface extends into the lower troposphere; here ERA‐I and CFSR reanalyses provide the most accurate profiles. The reanalyses generally contain larger temperature and humidity biases, (and RMSE) when a temperature inversion is observed, and contain larger wind speed biases (~2 to 3 m s−1), when a low‐level jet is observed.

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      NERC Open Research Archive
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jane H. Scarrow; Axel K. Schmitt; Jenni Barclay; Matthew S.A. Horstwood; +2 Authors

    Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, erupted from 1995 to 2010, with activity including dome growth, destructive pyroclastic density currents and Vulcanian explosions. Monitoring data, such as gas emissions, show the system is still in a state of unrest. The recent eruptions provide an opportunity to study, in real time, a complex subduction-related subvolcanic transaustal melt-mush reservoir, its magma fluxes, and the timing of crystal and melt storage prior to eruptive paroxysms. How and when mush destabilisation occurs prior to volcanic eruptions continues to be a question of intense debate. Evidence of mafic magma intrusion, a potential eruptive trigger, is preserved in enclaves with quenched and diffuse margins that are mingled with crystal-rich andesite. Here, in this first study of Soufriere Hills Volcano zircon, we report zircon ages and compositions for mafic-intermediate enclaves and host andesites from the most recent dome collapse in 2010 to place temporal constraints on magma reservoir processes. Zircon U-238-Th-230 ages disequilibrium crystallisation ages ranging between c. 2-250 ka constrain the longevity of the magmatic plumbing system. Uniform Hf isotopes, epsilon Hf 11.3 +/- 12 to 14.6 +/- 1.5, indicate invariant compositions that are typical for island arc magma sources. Zircon trace element concentrations and Ti-in-zircon crystallisation temperatures indicate crystallisation in isolated, small-volume, lenses with variable fractions of melt of heterogeneous compositions. We suggest amalgamation of assorted crystal cargoes from these lenses occurred prior to eruption during mush destabilisation triggered by mafic magma recharge. Zircon textures, on the other hand, shed light on recent centimetre-scale magma mingling immediately prior to eruption. Euhedral-subhedral zircon is preferentially preserved in or near quenched contacts of the least-evolved enclave and host andesite. By contrast, reheating of the andesite by the mafic magma recharge in the presence of zircon-undersaturated melts promoted zircon resorption. This led to the formation of subhedral-anhedral corroded zircon that is typical in the host andesite mush. Zircon thus reveals processes ranging from 100,000s of years of andesite storage to short-term partial destruction in response to transient heating and magma mixing events. This project has received funding from the European Union's Hori-zon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 749611 (JHS) . We also ac-knowledge funding from the Natural Environment Research Council Isotope Geoscience Facilities Steering Committee, grant IP-1746-1117 (JB) . The work has been financially supported by the Spanish grant CGL 2017-84469-P (JHS) . Funding for open access charge: Universidad de Granada/CBUA. Alexander Varychev at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, and Jeremy Rushton at the British Geological Survey, U.K., are thanked for help with analytical work. Jose Luis Macias is thanked for editorial handling. We are obliged to two anonymous reviewers for the time and effort they took to help us improve the clarity and rigour of our interpretations. 19 Natural Environment Research Council Isotope Geoscience Facilities Steering Committee IP-1746-1117 Spanish Government CGL 2017-84469-P Universidad de Granada/CBUA European Commission 749611

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