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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ruud H. H. Janssen; Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Andrea Pozzer; +7 Authors

    AbstractWe performed a case study of the organic aerosol (OA) budget during the MEGAPOLI campaign during summer 2009 in Paris. We combined aerosol mass spectrometer, gas phase chemistry, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) data and applied the MXL/MESSy column model. We find that during daytime, vertical mixing due to ABL growth has opposing effects on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary organic aerosol (POA) concentrations. POA concentrations are mainly governed by dilution due to boundary layer expansion and transport of POA‐depleted air from aloft, while SOA concentrations are enhanced by entrainment of SOA‐rich air from the residual layer (RL). Further, local emissions and photochemical production control the diurnal cycle of SOA. SOA from intermediate volatility organic compounds constitutes about half of the locally formed SOA mass. Other processes that previously have been shown to influence the urban OA budget, such as aging of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOC), dry deposition of S/IVOCs, and IVOC emissions, are found to have minor influences on OA. Our model results show that the modern carbon content of the OA is driven by vertical and long‐range transport, with a minor contribution from local cooking emissions. SOA from regional sources and resulting from aging and long‐lived precursors can lead to high SOA concentrations above the ABL, which can strongly influence ground‐based observations through downward transport. Sensitivity analysis shows that modeled SOA concentrations in the ABL are equally sensitive to ABL dynamics as to SOA concentrations transported from the RL.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brad Abbott; A. Abed Abud; Kira Abeling; Syed Haider Abidi; +1,622 Authors

    We thank CERN for the very successful operation of the LHC, as well as the support staff from our institutions without whom ATLAS could not be operated efficiently. We acknowledge the support of ANPCyT, Argentina; YerPhI, Armenia; ARC, Australia; BMWFW and FWF, Austria; ANAS, Azerbaijan; SSTC, Belarus; CNPq and FAPESP, Brazil; NSERC, NRC and CFI, Canada; CERN; ANID, Chile; CAS, MOST and NSFC, China; COLCIENCIAS, Colombia; MSMT CR, MPO CR and VSC CR, Czech Republic; DNRF and DNSRC, Denmark; IN2P3-CNRS and CEA-DRF/IRFU, France; SRNSFG, Georgia; BMBF, HGF and MPG, Germany; GSRT, Greece; RGC and Hong Kong SAR, China; ISF and Benoziyo Center, Israel; INFN, Italy; MEXT and JSPS, Japan; CNRST, Morocco; NWO, Netherlands; RCN, Norway; MNiSW and NCN, Poland; FCT, Portugal; MNE/IFA, Romania; JINR; MES of Russia and NRC KI, Russian Federation; MESTD, Serbia; MSSR, Slovakia; ARRS and MIZŠ, Slovenia; DST/NRF, South Africa; MICINN, Spain; SRC and Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden; SERI, SNSF and Cantons of Bern and Geneva, Switzerland; MOST, Taiwan; TAEK, Turkey; STFC, United Kingdom; DOE and NSF, United States of America. In addition, individual groups and members have received support from BCKDF, CANARIE, Compute Canada, CRC and IVADO, Canada; Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission, China; COST, ERC, ERDF, Horizon 2020 and Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, European Union; Investissements d’Avenir Labex, Investissements d’Avenir Idex and ANR, France; DFG and AvH Foundation, Germany; Herakleitos, Thales and Aristeia programmes co-financed by EU-ESF and the Greek NSRF, Greece; BSF-NSF and GIF, Israel; La Caixa Banking Foundation, CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya and PROMETEO and GenT Programmes Generalitat Valenciana, Spain; Göran Gustafssons Stiftelse, Sweden; The Royal Society and Leverhulme Trust, United Kingdom. The crucial computing support from all WLCG partners is acknowledged gratefully, in particular from CERN, the ATLAS Tier-1 facilities at TRIUMF (Canada), NDGF (Denmark, Norway, Sweden), CC-IN2P3 (France), KIT/GridKA (Germany), INFN-CNAF (Italy), NL-T1 (Netherlands), PIC (Spain), ASGC (Taiwan), RAL (U.K.) and BNL (U.S.A.), the Tier-2 facilities worldwide and large non-WLCG resource providers. Major contributors of computing resources are listed in ref. This paper describes a measurement of light-by-light scattering based on Pb+Pb collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment during Run 2 of the LHC. The study uses 2.2 nb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected in 2015 and 2018 at root sNN = 5.02TeV. Light-by-light scattering candidates are selected in events with two photons produced exclusively, each with transverse energy E-T(gamma) > 2.5 GeV, pseudorapidity vertical bar eta(gamma)vertical bar 5 GeV, and with small diphoton transverse momentum and diphoton acoplanarity. The integrated and differential fiducial cross sections are measured and compared with theoretical predictions. The diphoton invariant mass distribution is used to set limits on the production of axion-like particles. This result provides the most stringent limits to date on axion-like particle production for masses in the range 6-100 GeV. Cross sections above 2 to 70 nb are excluded at the 95% CL in that mass interval. Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) Canton of Bern, Switzerland Canton of Geneva, Switzerland Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports - Czech Republic Czech Republic Government Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Netherlands Government Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion Colciencias National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP) Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland NCN, Poland National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology PROMETEO Programme Generalitat Valenciana, Spain Ministry of Energy & Natural Resources - Turkey CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF) Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions, European Union Russian Federation NRC KI, Russian Federation Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) GenT Programme Generalitat Valenciana, Spain Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan Japan Society for the Promotion of Science SRC, Sweden Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden Ministry of Science and Technology, China United States Department of Energy (DOE) Danish Natural Science Research Council Herakleitos programme - EU-ESF, Greece French National Research Agency (ANR) Slovenian Research Agency - Slovenia Aristeia programme - EU-ESF, Greece Goran Gustafssons Stiftelse, Sweden Greek Ministry of Development-GSRT La Caixa Banking Foundation, Spain National Science Foundation (NSF) Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Thales programme - EU-ESF, Greece German Research Foundation (DFG) Canada Foundation for Innovation European Research Council (ERC) UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) Horizon 2020, European Union Australian Research Council Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Chinese Academy of Sciences Israel Science Foundation CRC, Canada IVADO, Canada Royal Society of London Benoziyo Center, Israel Compute Canada, Canada DST/NRF, South Africa ERDF, European Union Hong Kong SAR, China COST, European Union CEA-DRF/IRFU, France European Commission Greek NSRF, Greece Max Planck Society Spanish Government SERI, Switzerland Leverhulme Trust MNE/IFA, Romania SRNSFG, Georgia BSF-NSF, Israel CANARIE, Canada YerPhI, Armenia MSSR, Slovakia BMWFW, Austria CNRST, Morocco MIZS, Slovenia BCKDF, Canada DNRF, Denmark MESTD, Serbia SSTC, Belarus HGF, Germany RCN, Norway NRC, Canada ANID, Chile RGC, China ANPCyT CERN JINR

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2021
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Journal of High Energy Physics
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: JAIRO
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of High Energy Physics
    Article
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: Radboud Repository
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Journal of High Energy Physics
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    Journal of High Energy Physics
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2021
    Data sources: Apollo
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    CERN Document Server
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Journal of High Energy Physics
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    https://doi.org/10.48350/16708...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    https://doi.org/10.48350/16889...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Radboud Repository
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    Journal of High Energy Physics
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    JAIRO
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    Apollo
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Journal of High Energy Physics
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      Journal of High Energy Physics
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      CERN Document Server
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      Journal of High Energy Physics
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      https://doi.org/10.48350/16708...
      Article . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.48350/16889...
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      Journal of High Energy Physics
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2021
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      JAIRO
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: JAIRO
      Apollo
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: Datacite
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2020
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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kujawinski, Dorothea; Wolbert, J. Benjamin; Zhang, Lijun; Jochmann, Maik; +3 Authors

    International audience; The interest in compound-specific isotope analysis for product authenticity control and source differentiation in environmental sciences has grown rapidly during the last decade. However, the isotopic analysis of very polar analytes is a challenging task due to the lack of suitable chromatographic separation techniques which can be used coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry. In this work, we present the first method to measure carbon isotope compositions of the widely applied herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) by liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that this analysis can be carried out either in cation exchange or in reversed-phase separation modes. The reversed-phase separation yields a better performance in terms of resolution compared with the cation exchange method. The measurement of commercial glyphosate herbicide samples show its principal applicability and reveals a wide range of delta C-13 values between -24 and -34 aEuro degrees for different manufacturers. The absolute minimum amounts required to perform a precise and accurate determination of carbon isotope compositions of glyphosate and AMPA were in the sub-microgram range. The method proposed is sensitive enough to further perform the experiments that are necessary to better understand the carbon isotope fractionation associated to the natural degradation of glyphosate into AMPA. Furthermore, it can be used for contaminant source allocation and product authenticity as well.

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    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2013
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      Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: B. Haddadi; Olgeir Sigmarsson; Gudrún Larsen;

    AbstractBasalt eruptions at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, are generally of low intensity; however, occasionally, an order of magnitude larger eruptions occur. In order to discuss the reasons for this difference, the degassing budget of S and Cl and crystallization conditions of the eruptive magma were determined from volatile concentration measured in melt inclusion (MI) and groundmass glass and thermobarometry, respectively. Tephra of two of the largest historical eruptions (2011 and 1873) and two much smaller eruptions (2004 and 1823) were investigated. Sulfur and Cl concentrations are higher in groundmass glass of the smaller eruptions due to incomplete outgassing caused by melt quenching in contact with glacial water. Sulfur concentration and degassing budget correlate with erupted magma volumes. Higher volatile concentrations of MI from the larger eruptions reflect important recharge of gas‐rich magma from depth. The recharge causes a high‐magnitude eruption followed by increased eruption frequency over the following decades. Pressure and temperature estimates of crystallization are obtained through equilibrium clinopyroxene‐glass pairs, where crystals adjacent to, and in textural equilibrium with, both groundmass glass and that of MI were measured. An average crystallization pressure of 4 ± 1 kbar corresponding to approximately 15 ± 5 km depth was obtained together with a considerable temperature range, 1065–1175°C. Similar crystallization depths are obtained for the basalt of the 2014–2015 Bárðarbunga rifting event and to a low resistivity layer revealed by magnetotelluric surveys. Therefore, an important magma storage depth is inferred at lower crustal depth above the center of the Iceland mantle plume.

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Solid Earth
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Solid Earth
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Schmidt, A; Witham, CS; Theys, N; Richards, NAD; +10 Authors

    AbstractVolcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well‐known ground‐level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We have used the United Kingdom Met Office's NAME (Numerical Atmospheric‐dispersion Modelling Environment) model to simulate SO2 mass concentrations that could occur in European and North Atlantic airspace for a range of hypothetical explosive eruptions in Iceland with a probability to occur about once every 3 to 5 years. Model performance was evaluated for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption against SO2 vertical column density retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and in situ measurements from the United Kingdom Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft. We show that at no time during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption did SO2 mass concentrations at flight altitudes violate European air quality standards. In contrast, during a hypothetical short‐duration explosive eruption similar to Hekla in 2000 (emitting 0.2 Tg of SO2 within 2 h, or an average SO2 release rate 250 times that of Eyjafjallajökull 2010), simulated SO2 concentrations are greater than 1063 µg/m3 for about 48 h in a small area of European and North Atlantic airspace. By calculating the occurrence of aircraft encounters with the volcanic plume of a short‐duration eruption, we show that a 15 min or longer exposure of aircraft and passengers to concentrations ≥500 µg/m3 has a probability of about 0.1%. Although exposure of humans to such concentrations may lead to irritations to the eyes, nose and, throat and cause increased airway resistance even in healthy individuals, the risk is very low. However, the fact that volcanic ash and sulfur species are not always collocated and that passenger comfort could be compromised might be incentives to provide real‐time information on the presence or absence of volcanic SO2. Such information could aid aviation risk management during and after volcanic eruptions.

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx; I. R. van der Velde; Maarten Krol; Luciana V. Gatti; +10 Authors

    AbstractTwo major droughts in the past decade had large impacts on carbon exchange in the Amazon. Recent analysis of vertical profile measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CO by Gatti et al. (2014) suggests that the 2010 drought turned the normally close‐to‐neutral annual Amazon carbon balance into a substantial source of nearly 0.5 PgC/yr, revealing a strong drought response. In this study, we revisit this hypothesis and interpret not only the same CO2/CO vertical profile measurements but also additional constraints on carbon exchange such as satellite observations of CO, burned area, and fire hot spots. The results from our CarbonTracker South America data assimilation system suggest that carbon uptake by vegetation was indeed reduced in 2010 but that the magnitude of the decrease strongly depends on the estimated 2010 and 2011 biomass burning emissions. We have used fire products based on burned area (Global Fire Emissions Database version 4), satellite‐observed CO columns (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), fire radiative power (Global Fire Assimilation System version 1), and fire hot spots (Fire Inventory from NCAR version 1), and found an increase in biomass burning emissions in 2010 compared to 2011 of 0.16 to 0.24 PgC/yr. We derived a decrease of biospheric uptake ranging from 0.08 to 0.26 PgC/yr, with the range determined from a set of alternative inversions using different biomass burning estimates. Our numerical analysis of the 2010 Amazon drought results in a total reduction of carbon uptake of 0.24 to 0.50 PgC/yr and turns the balance from carbon sink to source. Our findings support the suggestion that the hydrological cycle will be an important driver of future changes in Amazonian carbon exchange.

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    Article . 2015
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    Research@WUR; Global Biogeochemical Cycles
    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2015
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      Research@WUR; Global Biogeochemical Cycles
      Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: S. Chatrchyan; V. Khachatryan; A. M. Sirunyan; A. Tumasyan; +199 Authors